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Digitizing and Importing a Score

This page describes the process for digitizing and importing a score using the djvu standalone encoder bundled with Variations.



Before digitizing a document determine what Cataloging ID will be given to the document. Each institution will should have a predetermined Cataloging ID scheme (filenaming) for naming records. If a Cataloging ID does not exist for the document that is being ingested one will need to be created.

Create Tiff Files

  1. Scan the pages
    • All Pages of a score must have the same proprieties (dimensions, resolution, bit depth, etc)
  1. Name Files using the appropriate Cataloging ID
    • Example: Score Page 1 = abc1234-01-001.tiff
    • Please Review your institution's file naming and Cataloging ID Scheme for more information
  2. Clean up the scanned image using preferred photo editing software

Create Derivative Files

Running the Encoder

Adding Files to the Encode List

There are Four ways to add files to the Encode List:

  1. Type the full file (or directory) path in the Filename text field and click Add File.
  2. Click Add File and navigate to the file (or directory) and click Open.
  3. Drag and Drop the file(s) (or directory) onto the Encode List.
  4. Right-click on the Encode List and click Add Files.... Then navigate to the file (or directory) and click Open.

Adding a directory to the Encode List will add all files in that directory or beneath that directory except Thumbs.db. If you attempt to add a file that already exists in the list with the same specified output file, it will be skipped without warning.

Starting Encoding

Click the Encode button to start encoding the files in the Encode List. If a file already exists at the specified output location, a warning dialog will ask if you want to overwrite the preexisting file. Files that have already been successfully encoded and are still in the Encode List will be skipped unless their status has been reset by selecting the file, right-clicking the mouse, and clicking Reset File Status.

Stop Encoding

To stop the current and all subsequent files from being encoded by the current encoding process, click the Stop button.

Removing Files from the Encode List

To remove all files from the Encode List either click Clear All or right-click in the Encode List and click Clear All Files.
To remove one or multiple files, select the file(s), right-click the mouse to bring up the popup menu, and click Remove File.

Reset a File's Status

To reset the status of one or multiple files, select the file(s), right-click the mouse to bring up the popup menu, and click Reset File Status. The tooltip text for these files should read Unprocessed after doing this.

Setting a File's Color Status

By default pages are set to encode using DjVuLibre's bitonal encoder. To set a page to be encoded in color, select the file, right-click, and select Set Color. To return a file to its bitonal default, reset the file's status by clicking Reset File Status from the popup menu you get by selecting the file and right-clicking.

Copy Derivative Files to Variations Server

This step can be skipped if the standalone encoder has been set to save the derivative files to the incoming directory.

  1. Connect either through Samba, sftp, or some other means to the loader/score/incoming directory on the Variations server.
  2. Copy all derivative files, but NOT the Tiff files.
  3. Double-check to make sure that the derivative filenames follow the local convention and the Variations derivative filename convention mentioned above.
  4. Make sure that derivative files are set with the correct permissions that the user dmlserv can read and write to them.

Importing the Score into Variations

  1. Select the Digitizer tab in the Search Window
  2. Enter the Cataloging ID in the Create text field
    • If the Cataloging ID already exists an error message(shown below) will be displayed. Check that you have entered the correct ID or search the ID to determine if the score has already been entered.
  3. Select Score, then click Create
    • Selecting the correct media type is an important factor because Variations does not support switching media type easily. A record must be deleted and recreated to switch the media type.
  4. Import MARC record
    • Import MARC through Cataloging ID
      Variations will search for a MARC record through the OPAC using the Z39.50 protocol for the Cataloging ID entered. If a record containing that Cataloging ID is found, Variations will attempt to import that MARC record associated with that ID.
    • Import MARC through Search
      • If Variations can't find a MARC record for that item, an error message (shown below)will pop up. After confirming the error message Varations will display a Z39.50 Search Window. A number of different fields can be searched on and when the desired record is selected and displayed, click Import.
      • If no record exists, click Cancel. No metadata will be imported in this case. The MARC record can be imported later using the Import button.
        Example error message:
  5. Complete or update the information in the Description section of the window.
  6. Import the Pages
    • Click Add Page(s)... (remember to encode/upload the derivatives first)
    • Select the original tiff file(s)
    • If the pages are named correctly they will appear in the Structure window

Structure Display Interface

After pages are added into the system the digitizer interface will display the pages in the Structure window. When a page is added it is placed in a tree structure based on the file's name. The structure window aids the digitizer in ordering, grouping, moving, deleting, and generally structuring the document to match the physical document's structure. Displaying the structure of the document not only aids the digitizer, but also gives information to the end user about how the score is structured. The structural metadata allows users to jump to important pages, navigate the score, and generally ascertain information about how the score is structured.


  • Record Name
  • Volume
  • Grouping (optional)
  • Page


How information is represented to end-users

Moving, Deleting, and Ordering Pages

After a page has been added it may not be in the correct location or may need to be removed. Variations allows for pages to be moved, reordered, or deleted.


  • Select the page you wish to delete
  • Press he Delete button
  • Confirm the Deletion

The moving option allows pages to be moved between groupings and between grouping and non-groupings.

  • Select the page you with to move
  • Press the Move to button
  • Select the correct location from the pop up window

Ordering allows files to be moved into the correct location. Since the pages are ordered by their page number Variations must renumber the pages to reorder them. If the pages are named correctly Variations should order them correctly, while ordering offers the opportunity to correct errors.

  • Select the page you wish to order
  • Use the directional up and down arrows to move the page to the proper location
  • When you save the file you must select the folder with the original tiff file from the pop up dialog box
    • You must have the tiff files on your local machine to move pages. Variations will attempt to keep the tiff and encoded files in sync.


Since larger scores or collections of scores may include multiple books, Variations allows the score to be divided into volumes. Similar to CD sides for audio media, volumes allow the system to express information to the user about how the score is physically structured. Volumes cannot be created though the Variations interface and instead must be specified through the naming of the files. Ideally volumes will be specified when the files are first digitized and named. If the files are given the appropriate name (i.e. filename-01-001, ...), Variations will display the pages in their correct locations and create the necessary number of volumes.

When an entire score belongs to a single volume, Variations requires that the file still be named to denote that all of the pages are part of volume one. Variations will not add pages that do not have a volume number associated with them or if the volume is 00.

If there is a need to create multiple volumes at a later time, the pages would have to be removed and re-added following the appropriate naming convention.

  • Example: abc1234-01-001
    • 01 referes to the volume
    • 001 refers to the page number
  • Example 2: abc1234-02-001

Example of a single volume score in Digitizer Window:

Labeling and Grouping


Labeling pages aids users in navigating and selecting pages from the score view window. Pages can be labeled numerically or labeled individually to give more information. Labeling pages does not require syncing with the tiff files and can only be done from the digitizer interface.

  • Group labeling
    • Select the desired pages and click Label Pages....
    • Enter a prefix if desired
    • Select the appropriate labeling style
    • Enter the value to use for the first label and click OK.
  • Individual labeling
    • Select the page
    • Typing a label in the Title field
    • Click the Next button.

Grouping pages is a good way to give the user more information about the structure of the score or to highlight important grouping of pages. Grouping pages does not require syncing with the tiff files and can only be done from the digitizer interface.

  • Select the pages you wish to group
  • Click the Group Selected button
  • Enter the name of the grouping in the Title text box

Example of Grouping and Labeling

Grouping & Labeling at IU

The application of tools like grouping and labeling may vary between institutions. To see IU's process for labeling and grouping pages, visit the Score Container Structure Guide .

Diacritics & Special Characters

Diacritics and other special characters can be entered by hitting the F2 key.

Saving Files

After entering all the metadata, click Save or Save & Exit. Saving the record may take some time because Variations checks to make sure all the pages are in the proper order and renames files sequentially. If Variations finds the derivative files on the server, it processes them and moves them to their serving location in the score-objects directory on the server. When a file is saved it is only visible to other catalogers and digitizers. The file can still be edited and changed at a later period of time.


If the files process correctly, the status in the Digitizer window should change to This record is valid, and the item should show up as "ready to Publish" in the progress listing on the digitizer tab in the Search window. Pressing the "Publish" button lets the system know that when the nightly cron job is run that these files should be moved from the cataloging server to the production server.

When a file is ingested and saved in Variations, the record is created on the cataloging server and is only available to digitizers and catalogers. Once the file is published it is moved to the production server it is available to the end-users. This process prevents end-users from encountering partially digitized, incomplete, or incorrect records.

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