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Back Matter

The back matter of the text consists of anything that comes after the body and is in addition to the main portion of the text. All back matter should be enclosed in the <back> element. Many texts will not have any back matter, in which case the <back> element is completely left out.

The encoding of back matter is less structured in TEI as compared to front matter, so each back matter division (index, glossary, colophon, etc.) needs to have its own <div> with one of the following types to denote the nature of the back matter:



Because publisher's catalogs at the end of books are a very specific type of advertisement that can be useful to literary scholars in a unique way, they are marked up differently then general advertisements that do not constitute bibliographic information about other books being published. As a result, there are two types of advertisement divsisions, general and publisher's catalog.

These parts of the text are encoded the same way as other back matter. They is put within a <div type="publishers_catalog"> or <div type="advertisement"> depending on the nature of the advertisement.

Publisher's Catalogs

Publisher's catalogs are marked up using the <listBibl> and <bibl> tags. Each individual catalog entry should be marked as its own <bibl>, and the author should also be marked using the appropriate <author>.

Because one entry may contain the title of more than one book, the <title> tags should contain the attribute n="". This attribute should number the title's listed in the entry consecutively. You should also use the level="" attribute with the <title> tag, to inform the reader about what type of title it is. There are four levels of titles:

Types of Titles:

a : used for Smaller parts of a whole, such as a short story in a whole book or an article in a newspaper.
m : monographic, used for the title of a book.
j : used for the title of a periodical, journal or magazine.
s : seiries, used for the title of a series of books or other data.
u : used to describe the title of an unpublished work.


If there are images associated with the catalog entry, use the designated tags set for figures.

There is no need to mark any further bibliographic information beyond author and title in the publication list. The final markup of the publisher's catalog should look as follows:

            <div type="publishers_catalog">
                    <bibl><author>LOUISE CHANDLER MOULTON</author>'S STORIES. <figure>
                            <figDesc>Little Girls holding hands.</figDesc>
                                <bibl><title n="1" level="a">JUST A LITTLE BIT OF CHRISTMAS.</title>
                                    — Page 153.</bibl>
                        <title n="2" level="m">BED-TIME~STORIES.</title>
                        <title n="3" level="m">MORE BED-TIME STORIES.</title> With Illustrations by
                        Addie Ledyard. Two handsome square 16mo volumes, bound in cloth, black and
                        gilt lettered. Price, $1.25. each. ROBERTS BROTHERS, Publishers, Boston. </bibl>
                    <bibl><author>SUSAN COOLIDGE</author>'S POPULAR BOOKS. <title n="1" level="a"
                            >NANNY'S SUBSTITUTE.</title> Nanny at the Fair, taking orders and
                        carrying trays. — Page 171. <title n="2" level="m">MISCHIEF'S THANKSGIVING,
                            AND OTHER STORIES.</title> WITH ILLUSTRATIONS BY ADDIE LEDYARD. One
                        handsome square l6mo volume, bound in cloth, black and gilt lettered. Price
                        $1.50. ROBERTS BROTHERS, Publishers, Boston. </bibl>

Occassionally a publsher's imprint will appear along with the catalog list. If so, use the <bibl> tag with the appropriate <pubPlace>, <publisher>, <date> or other bibliographic tags within <bibl> to capture this information.

General Advertisements

General advertisements infrequently appear in the back or front matter. These advertisements are tagged using the appropriate tags from the body section of the guidelines. For instance, <p> for prose text, <list> for lists of products, <figure> for images, and <head> for the headline.

            <div type="advertisement">
                <p>Do you want to go in to the BOOK BUSINESS?</p>
                <p>A BARGAIN FOR SOME ONE!</p>
                <p>One of the oldest, best advertised and best known OLD BOOK STORES IN THE U.
                <p>A chance seldom met with to step into an old established trade.</p>
                <p>will sell good will and Business for half what the stock is worth. No better
                    opening in the United States for party to take this Retail Store and cash trade.
                    Owner wants to leave city.</p>
                <p>Address, THE BOOKMART..</p>
                    <p>A picture of an open book.</p>


Reviews commonly appear in the back matter and are usually distinguished from general advertisements by some level of attribution. They should be encapsulated in a <div type="reviews"> and encoded using simple lists.

<div type="reviews">
                <head>Opinions of the Press.</head>
                <list type="simple">
                    <head>The Prophecy of Saint Oran, and Other Poems.</head>
                        <q>“There is perhaps no phase of our history more capable of poetic
                            treatment than the sainted lives of the Irish monks who first spread the
                            Christian faith over the western shores of Scotland, and yet it would be
                            difficult to point to a single representative poem having Saint Columba
                            and the devoted band of his disciples for its heroes. An attempt at
                            filling up this gap has recently been made by Miss Blind in a narrative
                            poem devoted to the fate of St. Oran, the friend and disciple of St.
                            Columba.... Apart from the sonorous beauty of her lines, there is in her
                            diction a straightforwardness and simplicity, and an entire absence of
                            affectation and false sentiment, which, combined with considerable power
                            of characterization, make her volume a remarkable contribution to
                            English literature.”</q>
                        <bibl>—<title level="j">Times</title>, <date>September 26, 1881</date>.</bibl>

To see an example of reviews, visit:


Appendices are extra material appended at the back of a text. Appendices are tagged using the <div type="appendix"> tag. Each separate appendix should be listed in its own <div type="appendix">. The appendices are tagged using the appropriate TEI elements (e.g. <p> for prose text, <list> for lists of products, <figure> for images, and <head> for the heading).

             <div type="appendix">
                  <head>Appendix P: Hoagy Carmichael: A List of Adoration</head>
                    <item>Hoosier Extraordinaire</item>
                    <item>Song Writer to the Stars</item>
             <div type="appendix">
                <head>Appendix Q: Hoagy Carmichael: Real Life James Bond</head>
                <p>Hoagy Carmichael was sauve and sophisticated, thus inspiring Ian Flemming's
                    characterization of James Bond.</p>
                    <p>A picture of Hoagy Carmichael looking dapper.</p>


Bibliographies are placed inside a <div> element with the type="bibliograpy" and <listBibl> elements and are marked up as the following example.

             <div type="bibliography">
                    <head>Famous Books Published in 1925</head>
                        <author>F. Scott Fitzgerald</author>
                        <title>The Great Gatsby.</title>
                        <pubPlace> New York</pubPlace>
                        <author>Ernest Hemingway</author>
                        <title>In Our Time</title>
                        <pubPlace>New York</pubPlace>
                        <publisher>Boni &amp; Liveright</publisher>
                        <author>Anita Loos</author>
                        <title>Gentlemen Prefer Blondes</title>
                        <pubPlace>New York</pubPlace>
                        <publisher>Boni &amp; Liveright</publisher>


A colophon contains information regarding the date, place, or reason for publication. Any bibliographic data, such as the publisher, should be marked up using a <div> element with a "colophon" type attribute. The back matter colophons are encoded the same way as half titles, as the following example shows.

        <div type="colophon">
            PRINTED BY <publisher>A. R. MOWBRAY AND CO. LIMITED</publisher>.


Conclusions are encoded in the same way as introductions. When conclusions come after the final chapter of the text, they are encoded separately in the back matter as follows:

      <div type="conclusion">
        <head>A Conclusion to the Text.</head>
        <p>Here are some closing remarks in light of the evidence I have just presented.</p>

In this example, the conclusion is tagged using the appropriate TEI tags (e.g., <p> for prose text, <list> for lists of products, <figure> for images, and <head> for the headings and titles).


Epilogues are found in drama and occur when a character delivers an out-of-character speech as an epilogue to the play. The epilogue should be encoded as speech and may contain a header that identifies the speaker, stage directions, or line breaks. These tags can be found in the drama. The epilogue is contained in a <div type="epilogue"> tag.

The encoder should decide whether the epilogue is a part of the dramatic action. If it is, the epilogue should remain in the <body> tag. The epilogue only belongs in the back matter because of the theme or layout of the text. If the epilogue is prose text, rather than a part of a dramatic work, it should be labeled as a conclusion.

<div type="epilogue">
    <head>Three years later.  Outside the school. Mr. Black addresses the audience.</head>
    <sp>It has been three long years since the school closed.</sp>


See Front Matter: Errata

Extros and Outros

These designations are used when the section is specifically labeled as an extro or outro. These are fairly uncommon and sometimes found in treatises. Both are marked as "extro" for expedience. They should be contained in <div type="extro"> tags. Extros and Outros are tagged internally using the appropriate tags from the body section of the guidelines.

<div type="extro">
        <p>This is an extro.</p>


Glossaries are collections of definitions or glosses for words. See the list section for more details about how to encode glossaries.

<div type="gloss">
   <head>French Terms Used in This Text</head>
      <list type="gloss">


Indexes are lists of locations of specific topics within the text. They are coded as unordered lists. Each entry is marked up using an <item> tag. If there are subtopics for the entry, create another <list> and place each subtopic its own <item> tag. Page numbers are placed in a <ref> tag with a target attribute that points to the corresponding page via the page break identifier, <pb xml:id="">.

<div type="index">
 <head type="supplied">Index</head>
      <list type="simple">
        <list type="simple">
           <item>Types, <ref target="#VAB5647-436">431</ref></item>
           <item>Harvesting of, <ref target="#VAB5647-532">527</ref></item>
           <item>Recipes for, <ref target="#VAB5647-051">46</ref></item>


If a part of the back matter that you are trying to encode does not fit one of the above described features, document the problem in the VWWP Encoding Problems page.

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