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  • VAB####: Describe encoding problem in detail (include page numbers if relevant). Reported by First Name Last Name.


  • (error)VAB7398: How do we encode words that have been hyphenated on two separate pages? (Example: con<pb n="3" xml:id="VAB7398-009"/>dense) Reported by Mary Borgo
  • (tick)VAB7403: I have a song embedded within a paragraph (page 14, pdf page 50). How should I encode it? Reported by Emily Witsell.
    • Use floatingText, type the division as type="song" and encode the song as you would verse. --Michelle
  • (tick)VAB1836: Are we encoding quotes (spoken words & thoughts) within verse? Reported by Nicholae Cline.
    • Yes, but if you need to use <said> I still haven't finished documenting the use of the @who attribute which relates to your very first question. I am still trying to figure out how to best capture the Prosopography feature. For now just use <said> and if I get the personography stuff figured out, you can come back and add the @who (as well as update the Header accordingly with new instructions I will provide. --Michelle
    • See above about the prosopographical info. An explanation of the @who in <said> is now provided in the Prose section. --Michelle
  • (tick)VAB1836: On page 42 (of the document itself), there is a set of dots that separates one portion of the poem from another. How should I encode this and should I try to keep the formating of the dots? Reported by Nicholae Cline.
    • Consult the verse guidelines; this information is documented as part of typographical separations. --Michelle
  • (tick)VAB7403: To build on Nicholae's question, can we have some clarification in the guidelines as to how/when we're using the <q> tag in prose? Reported by Emily Witsell.
    • After lots of research and referencing a document I am co-authoring, TEI in Libraries Best Practices, which deliberately excludes the use of <q> because of its ambiguous nature in the official P5 guidelines, I am removing any reference to <q>. Our guidelines are clear in the use of <quote> and <said>. Anything else that appears in quotes but is neither <quote> or <said> does not need to be differentiated in the markup (retain the quotation marks, of course). --Michelle
  • (tick)VAB7403: What do we do when we can't identify the language in the <foreign> tag? Reported by Emily Witsell.
    • Do not indicate the language unless someone else is able to identify the language. --Michelle
  • (tick)VAB1836: On page 49 of the document there are two titles: one seems to be the main title, in English, and the other is just underneath, in French. How should I encode this? Reported by Nicholae Cline.
    • In the <head> tag for the poem, repeat the tag twice for each title and use the xml:lang attribute to indicate the language on each. --Michelle
  • (tick)VAB7403: PDF page 372: I have a tricky table at the bottom. How should I treat the brackets covering two columns and the cross figure? Reported by Emily Witsell
    • Ignore the brackets. Just represent the 5 column table, but you will have blank cells in the first row so that the Imports/Exports label line up. The same is true for the rows that contain the year and GBP sign. To represent the GBP sign and the cross, use your computer's character map. Or copy and paste the characters from here: £ (sterling pound) and † (long cross). --Michelle
  • (tick)VAB1836: Pg. 113 - How do I encode this note at the beginning of the poem? Reported by Nicholae Cline.
    • I think you can use <argument>. --angela
  • (warning)VAB1836: Pg. 126 - How exactly should I handled the quoted phrases in the second stanza of "Moon and Clouds"? These phrases come from Psalm 19:1, but this information is not contained within the text. Reported by Nicholae Cline.
    • You would cite this as an external quote without the bibl. However, if you know the source, you could do something like add a <bibl> with a rend value of "suppress" to indicate the source yet not display that in the text. This is the kind of markup that's meaningful, but for now, just encode without the <bibl>. This issue will remain documented and flagged as pending (warning) in case I decide to amend the encoding practice at a later date. Good question! --Michelle
  • (error)VAB7403: For the index beginning on pdf page 581, two questions: should I mark the A/B/C headers as <head>? And are we trying to represent the two column format, and if so, how is that encoded? Reported by Emily Witsell.
    • I need you to upload the file to Xubmit so I can have a look. I don't see it in there at all which is weird. How did you get the TEI shell in the first place? --Michelle
  • (error) VAB1836: Starting from page 155, I have a series of reviews of different books by the same author. Should I encode as reviews or publisher's catalog (I have gone forward with the former for now)? If this is correct, should each review books get a separate div or should the entire reviews section be a single div (type="review")? Reported by Nicholae Cline.
  • (tick)VAB7385: On pdf page 262 there is a floating text (a song) that has a footnote in it.  I can't get the footnote to validate.  Are notes allowed in floating texts?  Reported by Rebecca Baumann.
    • Notes should be allowed in floatingText. I will need to access the file (and let me know the corresponding page number in the PDF, to see what's going on. --Michelle
    • File has been uploaded.  Floating text starts on PDF page 262.  <ref> tag will not validate.  --Rebecca
      • It looks like the problem is the placement of the <ref> tag. <ref> is a sub-element or child element (someone correct me on the terminology here), and so must be contained within another element such as <head> or <p>. Try moving this element and its contents () within the neighboring <head> tag and it should validate. --Nicholae.
      • Yes, that works.  Thank you!!!
  • (warning)VAB7385: I keep running into a problem with the fact that the <hi> tag cannot contain an <author> or <title> tag.  This is a big problem when trying to do publishers catalogs because authors and titles need to be centered, in bold, etc.  The Publisher's Catalog is giving me fits.  A more complex example in the guidelines might be helpful, as I imagine a lot of these books have this type of back matter.  Reported by Rebecca Baumann.
    • Again, I need to see an example. If titles are bolded, then you can just add the "rend" attribute in the title tag: <bibl><author rend="b">blah</author><title rend="b">blah</title></bibl>, but I need to see what you are formatting to understand why you want to use <hi>. --Michelle 
    • This is still a problem.  For an example, see PDF page 456.  "By Mrs. Henry Wood" needs to be center bold, but just "Mrs. Henry Wood" needs the author tag.  There are many cases like this on this page (456) and the pages that follow.  See also, for example PDF page 462, where all lines need to be centered but also need to contain title and author tags. --Rebecca
  • (tick)VAB7385: Can we add "guardianward" as a relationship group?  It's an important relationship in my text.  I'm not sure how to define the ward's relationship with the house's son though.  Perhaps "adoptivesiblings."--Rebecca
    • I talked to Angela about this and she said it was fine to add whatever relationships are important.  --Rebecca
  • (tick)VAB6984: I wonder if it would be possible to add a "nickname" tag for the prosopography section. Also, I have a Bible verse used as an epigraph at the head of a chapter. Using the floating text tags doesn't seem to work.
    • According to the TEI guidelines section 13.2.1 you can use the <addname> tag for "an additional name component, such as a nickname, epithet, or alias, or any other descriptive phrase used within a personal name." We tested it and it seems to work.
    • Rather than using a floatingText, encode the epigraph like:

      Code Block
          <cit><quote>Greater love hath no man than this, that a man lay down his life
              for his friends.</quote></cit>
          <bibl>- JOHN xv. 13.</bibl>


  • (tick)VAB1828: When a character retells a story in which there is a conversation which dialogue that features him is present; Horace is telling his friend Frank something that happened in the past between himself and his wife Austria; do I use two <said> elements? – Stephanie Luke
    • Yes, use the <said> element with the corresponding xml:id for the character as you have done in the examples you provided. --Michelle
  • (tick)VAB1828: Do we need both a forename and surname within <persName> element? Can we have dialogues within the work that are not <said who>? (minor characters?) Do we put <said> around any instance of dialogue, even when a minor character, like a passenger on a train, asks one question and never appears in the narrative again? – Stephanie Luke
    • You do not need both a forename and surname within the <persName> element. Just document what you know. Tagging dialogue spoken by minor characters is not required so it's really up to you. If you can imagine an instance were analyzing speech by minor characters as important (I certainly can see the potential), then you might want to engage in this level of markup, but it's really up to you. If you decide to document minor characters who are nameless, you can tag them in the following manner:

      Code Block
       <person xml:id="trainpassenger1">
                                  <name>Train Passenger 1</name>


  • (warning)VAB1828: What sub-attributes should we be putting beneath <persName> element? If we use <age>, what age should we use if the action occurs over a long time? Should we indicate that a person is deceased? I have been using the <note> element. Is this where we would put aliases?
    • Reference the P5 Guidelines for all the allowable characteristics that can be recorded. Age sounds tricky and if you recall one caveat about the prosopographical stuff is that it's biased toward demographic/HR statistical type info. If you can more or less figure out when the character was born, you can use birth/death values otherwise I'd advise you to leave age out unless you record an age range and there's no clear way of doing this. You can add as many <age> tags as desired so maybe one for the starting and ending "age" (e.g., adolescence and early adult).

      Code Block
      <person xml:id="jclifford">
                              <persName type="alias">

      As for aliases, you can repeat the persName tag, add type="alias" like example above. Use the <death> tag to record information about deceased. It could be a prose description. If you know dates, then use the @when attribute. --Michelle

  • (warning)VAB1828: In <relationGrp> how do we put relationships that are inactive or only occur halfway through the novel? – Stephanie Luke.
    • Good question. I have no idea and the official P5 Guidelines do not provide any clues. Based on allowable attributes for the <relation> element, the best I can find is an attribute called @period, which can take a prose like value. You may need to create your own local vocabulary for describing the temporal evolution of relationships. This is all great stuff to use as we deal with the complexity fo recording proso. info for literary characters! --Michelle
  • (warning)VAB1828: I have a cross-dressing character. I put “sex” as female and added a <note> under <person>. – Stephanie Luke
    • Sounds like a fun novel. Does this x-dresser have an alias, too? I would list both sexes and clarify in a note as you are doing. This is something else to raise with the TEI Council that needs adequate representation in this type of markup. --Michelle
  • (warning)VAB1828: Footnotes…attributing epithets to original author and source. I have epithets at the beginning of each chapter, and I have traced back the author(s) and particular poem(s). --Stephanie Luke
    • Since you have done the work in tracing the source, we should tag it. Right now, we aren't really supporting editorial additions to the markup, though we realize we should. For now, do something like this:

      Code Block
           <l><hi rend="center">"Through the broad rolling prairies</hi></l>
           <l><hi rend="center">I'll merrily ride,"</hi></l>
           <bibl type="editorial"><author>Blah</author><title>Poem A</title></bibl>

      The @type editorial value let's me know that it's encoder-supplied info. I'll need to spend more time researching how to properly capture this information, but this is good for now. --Michelle

  • (tick)VAB1828: Dates---should we flag dates by tagging them with the <date> element? --Stephanie Luke
    • We are not supporting that level of markup in the text, but it can be important in analysis. If you dabbled in date markup or haven't really done any, then skip it. If you have been systematically marking dates, that's fine too. We should talk about ways we can use this markup in textual analysis and perhaps make a case moving forward. What's especially important about dates is to provide a normalized version that can be used for processing. For example, blah blah Christmas of this year blah blah should be encoded, if you know the year, <date when="1922-12-25">Christmas of this year</date>. If you don't know the date, you can use any number of attributes like notAfter, notBefore to approximate the date. --Michelle
  • (tick)VAB1828: How do we center chunks of language? --Stephanie Luke
    • I'd need to see an example. If it's in a division or container tag like <epigraph> you can use @rend at the highest level. If it's just randomly centered in the middle of a paragraph, you could just add <hi rend="center"> around that chunk. --Michelle
  • (tick)VAB1828: How do we indicate horizontal lines that may break sections of text up? I have this in my Preface… --Stephanie Luke
  • (tick)VAB1828: Should we flag places that are mentioned in the novel that seem important (ex. Leadville, CO., New York City, etc)? – Stephanie Luke
    • This is just like tagging dates. There's definitely lots of cool stuff one can do with place names, but we haven't explicitly supported this level of markup. If you haven't really engaged in this level of tagging, I'd skip it, but we should talk about the utility. Like date normalization, when we do markup places, we tend to reference a controlled vocabulary like the Getty Thesaurus for Geographic Names (TGN) so for the placeName markup to be useful sooner than later, I'd need to add a whole set of instructions on how to encode places that references the TGN. --Michelle
  • (tick)VAB1828: If someone is remarking to himself, in his mind, do we still use <said>? --Stephanie Luke
    • Yes, the guidelines state that <said> can be used for thought or spoken words. --Michelle
  • (warning)VAB1828: My author seems to have accidently changed one character’s name halfway through the novel. What do we do if she messed up and changes names? --Stephanie Luke
    • Another good question ... I would add to <persName> entries for that <person>. For now, the name placement will indicate the ordering. I'll need to figure out how to reflect the name change more explicitly in the markup. --Michelle
  • (warning)VAB1828: How do we indicate an alias? Is their a special element attribute? – Stephanie Luke
    • See my response above with the type="alias". Let's use this for now. --Michelle
  • (tick)VA1828 I have been trying for a couple of days to submit my XML draft on to the Repository. I keep getting the error message, "Submission Error Submission Failed: Document is not valid. Error (2,59) : cvc-elt.1: Cannot find the declaration of element 'TEI'. Validated in -1 millisec." How can I fix this and what does it mean? Reported by Steph Luke
    • The schema declaration was commented out of the TEI root element so the document could not be validated. Not sure how that happened, but reinstated the schema references and uploaded the file on your behalf. --Michelle

      Code Block
      <TEI xml:id="VAB1828" xmlns=""
  • (tick) VA1828 page marked as 133, but actually consecutive page number 138. Encountered <floatingText> that was not letter, poem, etc. It is a newspaper article one character reads. I left it without an identification tag. Also, the font is somewhat different in the floatingText. I think it is a size smaller. How should I indicate that? Reported by Steph Luke** Sounds like multiple issues here. Let me see if I can parse your questions. I looked at your text and don't understand the page number issue. We can add "article" as a division type for the floatingText. Once I add it to the schema, I'll let you know so you can add the div type. For now leave it blank. I'd need to see why the font is different (page number), but in general we do not distinguish font size in the markup. Perhaps it's small b/c it's letting the reader know it's an excerpt from a newspaper article. I'll need to determine whether we need to explitly encode this in the rend attribute --Michelle
    • I fixed the schema to support a new floatingText type of "article" --Michelle
  • (tick)VAB8047: How should I tag quotes from the English Church catechism and the Scottish Church catechism when no author is referred to? Should I just use the <q> tag, or should there be a corresponding prosopological entry? (see pages 21 and 22). Reported by Beth Bevis.
    • You can use the <q> tag and be done with it.  Angela
  • (tick)I have quite a few sounds in my text like "Thud thud!" and "Click clack!"  Would it be appropriate to tag these with <sound>?  --Rebecca
    • Yes, <sound> is appropriate. --Michelle
  • (tick)VAB8044: Running titles- Is there a way that I can include them in TEI? For now, I have been deleting them in the TEI but including them in my footnotes. – Mary Borgo
    • The encoding guidelines state NOT to encode running titles. I haven't been involved or consulted about the footnotes all of you are gathering so knowing little of this endeavor, I'd stil venture to say that this information is not important to maintain in footnotes. --Michelle
      • Joss brought to my attention that the running headers used in your text are intentional by the author and meaningful to the narrative unlike most running headers. You *willwant to encode these, but I need to overhaul the schema to allow for the special encoding. I will also need to add the encoding instructions to the guidelines. I will need some time to do this, but know you will encode this information once I have made it possible for you to do so. My apologies for not lookng at your running headers closely enough. --Michelle*
        • I updated the schema so you can now encode your running titles using the <fw> tag. See instructions --Michelle
  • (tick)VAB8044: Initial letters- Is there anything that I can do to denote an embellished initial letter? – Mary Borgo
    • No. The readers will have access to the page images so embellishments will be seen in that view of the text. --Michelle
  • (tick)VAB8044: Illustrations with no captions- This story has a lot of illustrations embedded in the text. How do I include illustrations without captions in the TEI? – Mary Borgo
    • Captions are not required for figures/illustrations. Simple use the: <figure/>, which indicates that a figure appears in that point in the text, but without a caption. --Michelle
  • VAB8044: Ambiguous speaker- There are conversations (especially between the Skratdj children) where it is impossible to determine who exactly is speaking. Is there a way that I could create an ID in the prosopography that is connected to both Polly and Harry but doesn't indicate either one? – Mary Borgo
    • I'd need to see an example, my gut feeling is to not assign a "who" attribute in <said> if it is not known who is speaking. If you are sure it's one of two people, then you can do the following: <said who="#MrsSkra #MrsSkra">. You wouldn't create a blended prosopographical entry, but simply assign each character in the who attribute. --Michelle
  • (tick)VAB8044: What do I do with the AND on the title page? – Mary Borgo
    • Title pages are incredibly problematic in the TEI world. It's probably the least flexible set of tags in the whole of the TEI. As a result, we need to force things to make them valid. I'd stick in the "AND" in its own titlePart: <titlePart>AND</titlePart>. --Michelle
  • (tick)VAB8044: PG 13 has a nasty set of brackets. Help! – Mary Borgo
  • VAB8044: PG 16 has a bit of floating text which I'm not sure how to encode. It's a poem, but it's also being said by one of the characters. Encoding it like so is invalid:-Mary Borgo
     <div type="poem">
     <l n="1">"<said corresp="#Polly">Tell-tale tit!</l>
     <l n="2">Your tongue shall be slit,</l>
     <l n="3">And every dog in the town shall have a little bit</said>,"</l></div>
    • *FloatingText is used in the cases where the embedded text is more or less complete, a full poem (at least a stanza), that often has other textual elements like a title, openers, closers, etc. In this case, this is simple a quote. I would encode as follows:

      Code Block
      <q rend="blockquote" who="#Polly">"
                                                                <l>Tell-tale tit!</l>
                                                         <l>Your tongue shall be slit,</l>
                                                                <l>And every dog in the
                                                        town shall have a little bit,</l>
                                                            <p>quoted his sister.