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top
top

Prose

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front
front

Front

For how to deal with the front matter see the See the Front Matter page for more detailed information.

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body
body

Body

Prose includes novels, shorts stories, essays, etc.

The body will always generally take the following structure (with a few exceptions):

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  • body
    • div type="chapter"
      • any of the below tags needed to encode the text
    • div
  • body

There are several main tags that we use to mark up the structural elements of prose.

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div
div

Divisions

The chapter or division title, including markers such as Chapter II or Section III.

Divisions are often indicated by a chapter, section, etc. of a book. Nest as many divisions as necessary to properly represent the structure of the text (e.g., chapters, sections, etc.). Be sure to maintain consistency among the levels of division within the body (e.g., all chapters occur as first-level divisions, section as second-level, etc.).

Code Block

<div type="chapter">
  <head>1. Chapter Title</head>
  <p>Chapter prose ...</p>
     <div type="section">
       <head>1.1 Chapter Section Title</head>
       <p>Chapter section prose ...</p> 
     </div>
</div>

All division tags will have a type attribute. The value of the type attribute will be one of following:

  • chapter
  • section
  • lecture
  • letter
  • essay
  • story (used to demarcate short stories)
  • book
  • pamphlet
  • notes
  • dedication

If none of these value correctly describe the section of text you are encoding, document the nature of the division in the VWWP Encoding Problems page.

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xml
xml
<div><div type=chapter>
    <pb n="4"/>

    <head>CHAPTER II</head>

    <head>THE SEPARATION</head>

Chapters are designated using divs, marked with an ID. The ID is formulated by ADD. The <div> tag encloses a chapter. Chapter titles (headings) are indicated using a <head> tag. Page breaks come within the chapter <div>. Chapters are the sections of a text directly below books, generally speaking.

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head
head

Headings

See VWWP TEI P5 Encoding Guidelines for more information about headings.

Wiki Markup{align}{anchor:par} h4. *Paragraphs* Paragraphs are marked with a <p> tag. Paragraphs can be marked virtually anywhere in the text to mark a prose block. Paragraphs include <pb/> (page breaks), lists and tables. Paragraphs are extremely versatile and are used in a wide variety of text encoding situations. Generally speaking, if something is written as a paragraph, it can be marked as such. <div> tags cannot come within paragraphs, but <list> tags, <figure> tags, <pb/> tags, <note> tags, and many others can come within <p> tags. So, for instance, if a paragraph is broken up by a blank page and an image, as shown below, you do not need to close the paragraph to include these features. This allows you to maintain bibliographic accuracy. {code:xml}<p> Another feature was boats large and small, and junks, some laboriously tracked or rowed like my own, when the wind failed, against the powerful stream, or descending, keeping the necessary steerage headway by crowds of standing men on the low deck, facing forwards, vigorously working great sweeps or yulows, five or ten at each, the gorge echoing all along its length to the rise and fall of the wild chants to which the rowers keep time and which are only endurable when softened by distance. After some hours of this region of magic and mystery, near sunset we emerged into open water, with broken picturesque shores, and at dusk tied up in a pebbly bay with glorious views of mountain and woodland, not far from the beautiful village of Nan-to, and the <q type="term">&quot;needle&quot;</q> or <q type="term">&quot;pillar&quot;</q> of heaven, well known to the dwellers in Ichang. The Ichang gorge is about twelve miles long; the Niu-kan, grander yet, about three; the Mitan about three and a half; the Wushan about twenty; and the Feng-hsiang, or <q type="term">&quot;Wind Box,&quot;</q> the last of the great gorges, about four. These are the great gorges. </p> {code} {code:xml}<p>With a strong, fair wind our sail was set; the creak and swish of the oars was exchanged for the low music of the river as it parted under our prow; and the deep water (from fifty to a hundred feet), of a striking bottle-green colour, was unbroken by a swirl or ripple, and slid past in a grand, full volume. The stillness was profound, enlivened only as some big junk with lowered mast glided past us at great speed, the fifty or sixty <pb n="107"/> <note resp="BM" type="bibliographic"> Page 107 is a blank verso. </note> <pb n="108"/> <figure> <figDesc>

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par
par

Paragraphs

Paragraphs are marked with a <p> tag. Paragraphs can be marked virtually anywhere in the text to mark a prose block. Paragraphs include <pb/> (page breaks), lists and tables. Paragraphs are extremely versatile and are used in a wide variety of text encoding situations. Generally speaking, if something is written as a paragraph, it can be marked as such. <div> tags cannot come within paragraphs, but <list> tags, <figure> tags, <pb/> tags, <note> tags, and many others can come within <p> tags. For instance, if a paragraph is broken up by a blank page and an image, as shown below, you do not need to close the paragraph to include these features. This allows you to faithfully represent the text.

Code Block
xml
xml
<p>With a strong, fair wind our sail was set; the creak and swish
  of the oars was exchanged for the low music of the river as it
  parted under our prow; and the deep water (from fifty to a
  hundred feet), of a striking bottle-green colour, was unbroken
  by a swirl or ripple, and slid past in a grand, full volume.
  The stillness was profound, enlivened only as some big junk
  with lowered mast glided past us at great speed, the fifty or
  sixty

    <pb n="107"/>

    <pb n="108"/>

    <figure>
        <p>
          "Entrance to Ichang Gorge."
        </p>
    </figure>

    <pb n="109"/>

  men at the sweeps raising a wild chant in keeping with the
  scene. Scuds of snow, wild, white clouds whirling round
  pinnacles, and desolate snow-clothed mountains, apparently
  blocking further progress, added to the enchantment.
</p>
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floating
floating

Floating Texts

Often in prose texts you may encounter an "embedded" or floating text in the form of a letter, poem, journal entry, song, etc. Floating texts such as these have a complete structure that interrupts the flow of the main text that require the use of the <floatingText> tag. For example, letters and journal entries (see detailed description below have an opener and body; letters usually have closers, and a poem may be quoted in its entirety, with a title, epigraph, etc.

Floating texts are contained within a division of text (see example below) and may have one of the following division types (e.g., <div type="letter">):

  • article (e.g., journal or newspaper article)
  • letter
  • poem
  • journal
  • song

If you encounter another genre, do not assign a "type" attribute. Please document this in the VWWP Encoding Problems page for review and later designation.

  • Chapter with a letter
Code Block

<div type="chapter">
                <pb xml:id="VAA2383_126" n="118"/>
                <head>CHAPTER XIV</head>
                <head>MAURICE LEVY'S CONSTITUTION</head>
                <p>"<said who="#maurice"><hi rend="b">L</hi>O, SAM!</said>" said Maurice cautiously. 
                    "<said who="#maurice">What you doin'?</said>"</p>
                <p>Penrod at that instant had a singular experiencean intellectual shock like a flash 
                    of fire in the brain. Sitting in darkness, a great light flooded him with wild brilliance. He   
                    gasped!</p>
                <!--Text removed from example-->        
                <p>"<said who="#maurice">What you doin'?</said>" asked Maurice for the third time, 
                    Sam Williams not having decided upon a reply.</p>
                <pb xml:id="VAA2383_127" n="119"/>
                <p>It was Penrod who answered.</p>
                <p>"<said who="#penrod">Drinkin' lickrish water</said>," he said simply, and wiped his mouth with such delicious enjoyment 
             

...

 

...

 

...

 

...

    that Sam's jaded thirst was instantly stimulated. He took the bottle eagerly from Penrod.</

...

p>
    

...

            <p>"<said who="#penrod">A-a-h!</said>" exclaimed Penrod, 
  

...

                  smacking his lips. "<said who="#penrod">That was a good un!</said>"</p>
                <!--Text removed from example-->
   

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...

 

...

 

...

 

...

 

...

 

...

 

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h4. *Photographs, Graphics, and other Images*

See [VWWP TEI P5 Encoding Guidelines|VWWP TEI P5 Encoding Guidelines#fig] for more information about photographs, graphics and other images.

{anchor:list}

h4. *Lists*

See [VWWP TEI P5 Encoding Guidelines|VWWP TEI P5 Encoding Guidelines#li] for more information about lists.

{anchor:table}

h4. *Tables*

See [VWWP TEI P5 Encoding Guidelines|VWWP TEI P5 Encoding Guidelines#table] for more information about tables.

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h4. *Quotes*

Quotes are denoted by quotation marks. Only text that comes within quotation marks will be marked as a quotation for the purposes of encoding. There are two types of quotes: quotes that are external to the text and quotes that are internal.  The [quote|http://www.tei-c.org/release/doc/tei-p5-doc/en/html/ref-quote.html] element is used for passages that are external to the text, like a reference to a study or another book.\[Internal quotes are quotes that are from inside the text (e.g., character speeches or thoughts, notes written by characters, or terms used in the book) and have various TEI elements to represent them.

[External|#external]
[Internal|#internal]

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      <p>Penrod uttered some muffled words and then waved both armseither in response or as an   
                    expression of his condition of mind; it may have been a gesture of despair. How much intention 
                    there was in this actobviously so rash, considering the position he occupiedit is impossible to 
                    say. Undeniably there must remain a suspicion of deliberate purpose.</p>
                <!--Text removed from example-->
                <pb xml:id="VAA2383_138" n="130"/>
                <p>The damsel curtsied again and handed him the following communication, 
                    addressed to herself: </p>
                <floatingText>
                    <body>
                        <div type="letter">
                            <p>Dear madam Please excuse me from dancing the cotilo with you
                                this afternoon as I have fell off the barn.</p>
                            <closer>
                                <salute>Sincerly yours</salute>
                                <signed><hi rend="sc">Penrod Schofield.</hi></signed>
                            </closer>
                        </div>
                    </body>
                </floatingText>
            </div>
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notes
notes

Notes

See VWWP TEI P5 Encoding Guidelines for more information about encoding notes (footnote, endnotes, etc.).

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fig
fig

Photographs, Graphics, and other Images

See VWWP TEI P5 Encoding Guidelines for more information about photographs, graphics and other images.

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list
list

Lists

See VWWP TEI P5 Encoding Guidelines for more information about lists.

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table
table

Tables

See VWWP TEI P5 Encoding Guidelines for more information about tables.

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quotes
quotes

Quotes

Quotes are denoted by quotation marks, which will be retained in the text. Only text that comes within quotation marks will be marked as a quotation for the purposes of encoding. There are two types of quotes: quotes that are external to the text and quotes that are internal. The quote element is used for passages that are external to the text, like a reference to a study or another book. Internal quotes are quotes occur inside the text (e.g., character speeches or thoughts or notes written by characters) and have various TEI elements to represent them.

External
Internal

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external
external

Quotes that are External to the Text: Outside Sources and Other References

Quotes that come from outside the text are marked by first using a <cit> tag, to denote an external citation. Within the <cit> tag there are two smaller parts, <quote> and <bibl>. <quote> encompasses the body of the quote, or actual quoted text. The <bibl> tag encompasses any bibliographic reference given that identifies the source of the text, such as a title or author. For a more comprehensive discussion of the <bibl> tag, please see the <bibl> section of the official TEI P5 guidelines. Quotes can also be marked with other tags, for instance, inside the <quote> tag, you can have an <l> tag to denote a line of poetry.

Code Block
xml
xml
<cit>
    <quote>
        <l>Parted without the least regret,</l>
        <l>Except that they had ever met.</l>
        <l>* * * *</l>
        <l>Misses, the tale that I relate,</l>
        <l>This lesson seems to carry:</l>
        <l>Choose not alone a proper mate,</l>
        <l>But proper time to marry!</l>
    </quote>
    <bibl>
        <author>Cowper,</author>
        <title level="a">Pairing Time anticipated</title>
    </bibl>
</cit>

...

Code Block
xml
xml
<cit>
    <quote>
        

...

"To be or not to be?

...

"
    </quote>
    <bibl>
        <author>Shakespeare,</author>
        <title level="a">Hamlet</title>
    </bibl>
</cit>

...

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xml
xml
<p>
  There are three main female characters in The Great Gatsby, Myrtle Wilson, Jordan Baker and Daisy Buchanan. When
    <cit>
        <bibl>
            <author>Fitzgerald</author>
          says,
        </bibl>
       <quote>

...

"it takes two to make an accident,

...

"</quote>
    </cit>
  one wonders to which of these women he is referring.
</p>

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internal
internal

Quotes that are Internal to the Text: Thought, Speech, Writing

Quotations in the text that indicate speech, thought, writing, etc. by one or more characters is marked by the various TEI elements. For instance, dialogue or notes written from one character to another would be indicated using this <q> element. The <q> tag will generally come inside of a set of <p> tags, since most dialogue is denoted within the text by setting it apart as a separate paragraph. Quotes can come within quotes, such as when one speaker quotes someone else. If there is an external quote inside an internal quote, for instance, a character quotes the bible, the correct tags will be used to delineate between the two distinct types of quotes. Sometimes, quotation marks

The emph, foreign, distinct, mentioned, term and soCalled values indicate that a quote is linguistically set a part. For instance, emph is used to denote special emphases placed on a word via quotation marks. The foreign tag indicates that quotation marks were used because the word is in a foreign language. The distinct tag signifies that the quote is in quotation marks because to set it apart from the rest of the text due to some linguistic peculiarity, slang, for instance, or regional dialect. Mentioned is used to indicate that the writer is talking about the word itself rather than using the word. For instance, talking about the part of speech of the word "canary." Term indicates that the word was put in quotation marks because it is a discipline or subject specific term. For example, if the author uses quotations to demarcate medical terminology, then the term type would be indicated. Finally, soCalled is used to indicate scare quotes. If the author removes him or herself from the word via quotation marks, then you mark the term as "soCalled." Below is a reference list of the different TEI elements used to mark up internal quotes:

...

titleQuick Reference, Quote Type

...

Specialized tags are provided to indicate the various types of internal quotations, but for this project we will only use a subset of the possible tags:

  • <said>: Use to indicate passages thought or spoken aloud
    • When <said> is used, the who attribute is required. To facilitate the use of the who attribute, be sure you first record the
      person in the TEI Header following the instructions under the prosopography section. This will generate a pick list for the who attribute (to minimize errors and ensure consistency).
  • <q> is used when someone is being quoted, but it's not an actual <said>. The use of <q> is kinda mushy, but here's a good example:
Code Block
xml
xml

<p>When, for instance, <persName ref="#maurice">Mr Maurice</persName> tells us that 
<q who="#maurice">'the end of education itself is, as it has always been considered, to 
form a nation of liv- ing, orderly men,'</q> the definition will be accepted, with the 
tacit reservation that it applies only to men, in the exclusive sense of the word, and 
has nothing to do with the education of women.</p>
  • <foreign>: A word or phrase is in quotation marks

...

  • , italisized or set apart in some way because it not the predominant language used in the text.
    • Attempt to identify the language using the "xml:lang" attribute and a two-letter (as opposed to the three-letter) code according to the ISO 639 standard. See example below.
  • <distinct>: A word or phrase is in quotes or set apart in some way because it is linguistically distinct

...

  • such as slang or regional dialect.

...

Anything else that appears in quotes but is neither <quote>, <said>, <foreign> or <distinct> does not need to be differentiated in the markup.

Retain the quotation marks printed in the text. Tags should surround the quotation marks when present.

Quotes can come within quotes, such as when one speaker quotes someone else. If there is an external quote inside an internal quote, for instance, a character quotes the bible, the correct tags will be used to delineate between the two distinct types of quotes.

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xml
xml
<p>Aggie
said<p>Henry blustered,
    <said>&quot;She&apos;s a Trollope.&quot;</said>"<said who="#henry">I know you</said>.
        <quote>'Thou Shalt Not Kill.'</quote>"
</p>
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xml
xml
<p>Aggie
thought,<p>I had four days  <said>&quot;How long have I been here?&quot;</said>
</p>
of <distinct>"hanging on."</distinct>
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xml
xml

<p>
<said who="#jack"><foreign xml:lang="fr">C'est la vie</foreign></said>, said Jack.
</p>
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letters
letters

Letters

Letters commonly appear within prose texts and should be encoded as <floatingText> with <div type="letter">.

  • Use <opener> if the letter contains a dateline, salutation or other opening content.
    • Use <salute>, <dateline>, etc. when present
  • Use <closer> if letter has closing content like signature, dateline, etc.
    • Use <signed> if name appears in the closing
  • Use <postscript> to encode P.S. content
Code Block
xml
xml
<p>
<floatingText>
  <body>
<quotation>&quot;Anna said,
    <div type="letter">
                <byline>OFFICE OF TREASURER OF STATE, INDIANA
       <said>&apos;See you at noon,&apos;</said>
    &quot;</quotation>
read the note.</p>

<p>Henry blustered,
    <said>&quot;I know you.
        <quote>&apos;Thou Shalt Not Kill.&apos;</quote>
    &quot;</said>
Code Block
xmlxml
<term>&quot;Wind Box,&quot;</term>
Code Block
xmlxml
<p>Abaft this were three small cabins, with windows
    <soCalled>&quot;glazed&quot;</soCalled>
  with paper, and a passage down the port side from the stern to the
  bow, on which I cannot say they
    <soCalled>&quot;opened,&quot;</soCalled>
  for they were open
  (!), and a partial privacy was only obtained by making a
  partition with a curtain.
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xmlxml
I had four days of
    <distinct>&quot;hanging on.&quot;</distinct>
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xmlxml
<mentioned>&quot;six thousand&quot;</mentioned>
  read
    <mentioned>&quot;8875.&quot;</mentioned>
</p>
           INDIANAPOLIS, November 27, 1858. </byline>
                <opener>
                    <salute>Hon. A. A. Hammond, President of the Senate of
                        Indianapolis:</salute>
                </opener>
                <p>In answer to a resolution of your honorable body concerning the
                    condition of the "school fund" during the present and past years,
                    I beg leave to submit that
                    <pb xml:id="VAA8558-01-056" n="48"/>
                    the report of the Auditor of State to the Legislature, which
                    will be before you in a day or two, contains all
                    the information you desire on that subject; and the previously
                    submitted reports of this officer to the Governor and the Legislature
                    contain the history of his fund during the time specified in the
                    resolution.</p>
                
                <closer>
                    <salute>Very respectfully,</salute>
                    <salute>Your obedient servant,</salute>
                    <signed>AQUILLA JONES, Treas. of State.</signed>
                </closer>
                <postscript>
                    <label>P.S.</label> 
                    <p>The reports also contain information on the school corporations' 
                    voting history.</p>
                </postscript>
            </div>
 </body>
</floatingText>
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closers
closers

Closers

See VWWP TEI P5 Encoding Guidelines for more information about letter closers.

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pb
pb

Page Breaks

For more information on how to encode page breaks see the page break section of the general guidelines.

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back
back

Back Matter

For how to encode the back matter of the text, see the back matter sectionSee the Back Matter page for more detailed information.

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problems
problems

Problems

If a part of the prose text that you are trying to encode does not fit one of the above described features, document the problem in the VWWP Encoding Problems page.

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