Prose includes novels, shorts stories, essays, etc. There are several main tags that we use to mark up the structural elements of prose.
Chapters are designated using divs, marked with an ID. The ID is formulated by ADD. The <div> tag encloses a chapter. Chapter titles (headings) are indicated using a <head> tag. Page breaks come within the chapter <div>. Chapters are the sections of a text directly below books, generally speaking.
<hi rend="sc">THE</hi> first one -- the very first one? Well, I almost think it was a sallow, undersized Italian with handsome
ox-eyes, who used to give us violin lessons; or else it was a cousin, a boy with sandy hair, who stammered, and who was reading
for the army; but, no, I rather think it was the anxious young doctor, who came when I had the measles-anyhow,
he, the primeval one, is lost in the mists of antiquity. . . .
Headings include the titles of lists, chapters, sections, etc. in a work. Most commonly, you will use them for chapters, lists and sections when marking prose. <head> tags can only come at the beginning of a <div>, <figure> or <list>. A <head> cannot come in the middle of a <div>. If you are going to mark <head>s in the text, you must start a new <div>, <figure> or <list>. Therefore, a head indicates a new section of the text. Page breaks can (and should) come before <head> tags, but paragraphs and other tags cannot. There can be more than one head tag following the <div>.
The chapter or division title, including markers such as Chapter II or Section III.
"Entrance to Ichang Gorge."
Page 108 contains the image the full page image titled, "Entrance to Ichang Gorge." This figure includes three mounts with a valley
in the foreground.
Paragraphs are marked with a <p> tag. Paragraphs can be marked virtually anywhere in the text to mark a prose block. Paragraphs include <pb/> (page breaks), lists and tables. Paragraphs are extremely versatile and are used in a wide variety of text encoding situations. Generally speaking, if something is written as a paragraph, it can be marked as such. <div> tags cannot come within paragraphs, but <list> tags, <figure> tags, <pb/> tags, <note> tags, and many others can come within <p> tags. So, for instance, if a paragraph is broken up by a blank page and an image, as shown below, you do not need to close the paragraph to include these features. This allows you to maintain bibliographic accuracy.
<p>With a strong, fair wind our sail was set; the creak and swish
of the oars was exchanged for the low music of the river as it
parted under our prow; and the deep water (from fifty to a
hundred feet), of a striking bottle-green colour, was unbroken
by a swirl or ripple, and slid past in a grand, full volume.
The stillness was profound, enlivened only as some big junk
with lowered mast glided past us at great speed, the fifty or
<note resp="BM" type="bibliographic">
Page 107 is a blank verso.
"Entrance to Ichang Gorge."
Page 108 contains the image titled, "Entrance to Ichang Gorge." This figure includes three mounts with a valley in the foreground.
men at the sweeps raising a wild chant in keeping with the
scene. Scuds of snow, wild, white clouds whirling round
pinnacles, and desolate snow-clothed mountains, apparently
blocking further progress, added to the enchantment.
Figures, Pictures and Images
Because most of the texts in VWW will not include images, you need to mark figures, charts, images and other matter within the text so that the reader understands where they fall in the text and what they look like. All of these things are marked using the same tag, <figure>. A figure will include to sub-elements, <figDesc>, or figure description, and <head>. The <head> and <figDesc> tags can be listed in any order. In other words, <head> can come before or after <figDesc>. The figure <head> contains the title caption listed in the text. If there is no caption, you do not use the <head> tag. The <figDesc> is the element used to denote a summary of the image and what is featured in it. Remember, this tag will be used to indicate to the reader what the image looks like and how it appears bibliographically. Be as detailed and specific as possible, without writing too much.
Printer's device. A shield covered in crosses and surrounded by ivy, with the words "propter hoc, ergo post hoc" across the top.
Lists are ordered, itemized information. They can have headings, <head>, but need not have headings. They can come within paragraphs,<p>, and divisions, <div>, but need not. Lists can include many types of information, including images and charts, <figure>, and financial information. Lists can also come within lists. So for instance, sublists in a larger list can be marked. This is done by putting the list, figure or other tag within the list <item>.
<item>I. Geographical And Introductory . . . . 1</item>
<item>II. <q type="soCalled">"The Model Settlement"</q> . . . . . 15</item>
<item> III. Hangchow . . . . . . . 29</item>
Lists of Definitions and Terms, Glossaries
Glossaries and other lists that have a term followed by a definition are considered special types of lists, type="gloss", in TEI. These lists are labeled with the <list type="gloss"> tag. They can then be followed by a <head> tag, but need not be. The <label> tag is used to determine the term or phrase being glossed in the definition. The <item> tag is then used to denote the definition.
Back to Lists.
Tables are text displayed in tabular form. In other words, text displayed in columns and rows. Tables are marked with the <table> tag. This tag is given the elements rows= and cols=, in order to specify how many rows and columns are in the table. Tables can have a <head>, but need not.
<p>The yearly funding from this grant is clearly set forth:
<table rows="4" cols="5">
Only about 10% goes to libraries.</p>
Quotes are denoted by quotation marks. Only text that comes within quotation marks will be marked as a quotation for the purposes of encoding. There are two types of quotes: quotes that are external to the text and quotes that are internal. External quotes are quotes that come from outside the text, like a reference to a study or another book. Internal quotes are quotes that are from inside the text: character speeches or thoughts, notes written by characters, or terms used in the book.
Quotes that are External to the Text: Outside Sources and Other References
Quotes that come from outside the text are marked by first using a <cit> tag, to denote an external citation. Within the <cit> tag there are two smaller parts, <quote> and <bibl>. <quote> encompasses the body of the quote, or actual quoted text. The <bibl> tag encompasses any bibliographic reference given that identifies the source of the text, such as a title or author. For a more comprehensive discussion of the <bibl> tag, please see the <bibl> section of the guidelines. The <cit> tag denotes the citation as a unit, and the <quote> and <bibl> tags denote smaller portions of the larger unit. Quotes can also be marked with other tags, for instance, inside the <quote> tag, you can have an <l> tag to denote a line of poetry.
Quotes that are Internal to the Text: Thought, Speech, Writing
Quotations in the text that indicate speech, thought, writing, etc. by one or more characters is marked by the <q> element. For instance, dialogue or notes written from one character to another would be indicated using this element. Quotations that are external to the text are marked using a different tag. For example, you would not mark a quote from Plato, the Bible or any other external source using the <q> tag. The <q> tag will generally come inside of a set of <p> tags, since most dialogue is denoted within the text by setting it apart as a separate paragraph. Quotes can come within quotes, such as when one speaker quotes someone else. If there is an external quote inside an internal quote, for instance, a character quotes the bible, the correct tags will be used to delineate between the two distinct types of quotes. The type attribute is used with <q> to indicate the nature of the quote. Acceptable values for the type attribute, in this case, are spoken, thought, emph, distinct, mentioned, term, foreign, soCalled and written.
Closers are most commonly seen at the ends of letters, but they also appear at the end of prefaces, pamphlets and other works. They include the closing salutation, such as "sincerely," the author's name, and sometimes information about the date of publication or the place. Closers are grouped inside the <closer> tag, which can contains <salute>, <signed>, or <dateline>.