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For how to deal with the front matter see the front matter section.


Prose includes novels, shorts stories, essays, etc.

The body will always take the following structure (with a few exceptions):

  • body
    • div type="chapter"
      • any of the below tags needed to encode the text
    • div
  • body
There are several main tags that we use to mark up the structural elements of prose.

They indicate:


The chapter or division title, including markers such as Chapter II or Section III.

    <pb n="4"/>

    <head>CHAPTER II</head>

    <head>THE SEPARATION</head>


The title of the list.



The caption title of the image, either below or above.

      &quot;Entrance to Ichang Gorge.&quot;


See VWWP TEI P5 Encoding Guidelines for more information about headings.


Chapters are designated using divs, marked with an ID. The ID is formulated by ADD. The <div> tag encloses a chapter. Chapter titles (headings) are indicated using a <head> tag. Page breaks come within the chapter <div>. Chapters are the sections of a text directly below books, generally speaking.

    <pb n="1"/>
    CHAPTER I</head>
    <hi rend="sc">THE</hi> first one -- the very first one? Well, I almost think it was a sallow, undersized Italian with handsome
    ox-eyes, who used to give us violin lessons; or else it was a cousin, a boy with sandy hair, who stammered, and who was reading
    for the army; but, no, I rather think it was the anxious young doctor, who came when I had the measles-anyhow,
        <pb n="2"/>
    he, the primeval one, is lost in the mists of antiquity. . . .


Paragraphs are marked with a <p> tag. Paragraphs can be marked virtually anywhere in the text to mark a prose block. Paragraphs include <pb/> (page breaks), lists and tables. Paragraphs are extremely versatile and are used in a wide variety of text encoding situations. Generally speaking, if something is written as a paragraph, it can be marked as such. <div> tags cannot come within paragraphs, but <list> tags, <figure> tags, <pb/> tags, <note> tags, and many others can come within <p> tags. So, for instance, if a paragraph is broken up by a blank page and an image, as shown below, you do not need to close the paragraph to include these features. This allows you to maintain bibliographic accuracy.

  Another feature was boats large and small, and junks, some
  laboriously tracked or rowed like my own, when the wind failed,
  against the powerful stream, or descending, keeping the
  necessary steerage headway by crowds of standing men on the low
  deck, facing forwards, vigorously working great sweeps or
  yulows, five or ten at each, the gorge echoing all along its
  length to the rise and fall of the wild chants to which the
  rowers keep time and which are only endurable when softened by
  distance. After some hours of this region of magic and mystery,
  near sunset we emerged into open water, with broken picturesque
  shores, and at dusk tied up in a pebbly bay with glorious views
  of mountain and woodland, not far from the beautiful village of
  Nan-to, and the <q type="term">&quot;needle&quot;</q> or <q type="term">&quot;pillar&quot;</q> of heaven, well known
  to the dwellers in Ichang. The Ichang gorge is about twelve
  miles long; the Niu-kan, grander yet, about three; the Mitan
  about three and a half; the Wushan about twenty; and the
  Feng-hsiang, or <q type="term">&quot;Wind Box,&quot;</q> the last of the great gorges,
  about four. These are the great gorges.
<p>With a strong, fair wind our sail was set; the creak and swish
  of the oars was exchanged for the low music of the river as it
  parted under our prow; and the deep water (from fifty to a
  hundred feet), of a striking bottle-green colour, was unbroken
  by a swirl or ripple, and slid past in a grand, full volume.
  The stillness was profound, enlivened only as some big junk
  with lowered mast glided past us at great speed, the fifty or

    <pb n="107"/>

    <note resp="BM" type="bibliographic">
      Page 107 is a blank verso.

    <pb n="108"/>

          &quot;Entrance to Ichang Gorge.&quot;

    <pb n="109"/>

  men at the sweeps raising a wild chant in keeping with the
  scene. Scuds of snow, wild, white clouds whirling round
  pinnacles, and desolate snow-clothed mountains, apparently
  blocking further progress, added to the enchantment.

Photographs, Graphics, and other Images

See VWWP TEI P5 Encoding Guidelines for more information about photographs, graphics and other images.


See VWWP TEI P5 Encoding Guidelines for more information about lists.


See VWWP TEI P5 Encoding Guidelines for more information about tables.


Quotes are denoted by quotation marks. Only text that comes within quotation marks will be marked as a quotation for the purposes of encoding. There are two types of quotes: quotes that are external to the text and quotes that are internal. The quote element is used for passages that are external to the text, like a reference to a study or another book.[Internal quotes are quotes that are from inside the text (e.g., character speeches or thoughts, notes written by characters, or terms used in the book) and have various TEI elements to represent them.


Quotes that are External to the Text: Outside Sources and Other References

Quotes that come from outside the text are marked by first using a <cit> tag, to denote an external citation. Within the <cit> tag there are two smaller parts, <quote> and <bibl>. <quote> encompasses the body of the quote, or actual quoted text. The <bibl> tag encompasses any bibliographic reference given that identifies the source of the text, such as a title or author. For a more comprehensive discussion of the <bibl> tag, please see the <bibl> section of the guidelines. The <cit> tag denotes the citation as a unit, and the <quote> and <bibl> tags denote smaller portions of the larger unit. Quotes can also be marked with other tags, for instance, inside the <quote> tag, you can have an <l> tag to denote a line of poetry.

Sometimes, citations will occur within the text. In that case, you still use the <cit> tag and mark the quote as you normally would. You must remember, however, that all of the words within the <cit> must be within either a <bibl> or a <quote> tag. You do not need both <quote> and <bibl>, but you do need at least one.

        <l>Parted without the least regret,</l>
        <l>Except that they had ever met.</l>
        <l>* * * *</l>
        <l>Misses, the tale that I relate,</l>
        <l>This lesson seems to carry:</l>
        <l>Choose not alone a proper mate,</l>
        <l>But proper time to marry!</l>
        <title level="a">Pairing Time anticipated</title>
        &quot;To be or not to be?&quot;
        <title level="a">Hamlet</title>
  There are three main female characters in The Great Gatsby, Myrtle Wilson, Jordan Baker and Daisy Buchanan. When
       <quote>&quot;it takes two to make an accident,&quot;</quote>
  one wonders to which of these women he is referring.

Quotes that are Internal to the Text: Thought, Speech, Writing

Quotations in the text that indicate speech, thought, writing, etc. by one or more characters is marked by the various TEI elements. For instance, dialogue or notes written from one character to another would be indicated using this <q> element. The <q> tag will generally come inside of a set of <p> tags, since most dialogue is denoted within the text by setting it apart as a separate paragraph. Quotes can come within quotes, such as when one speaker quotes someone else. If there is an external quote inside an internal quote, for instance, a character quotes the bible, the correct tags will be used to delineate between the two distinct types of quotes. Sometimes, quotation marks

The emph, foreign, distinct, mentioned, term and soCalled values indicate that a quote is linguistically set a part. For instance, emph is used to denote special emphases placed on a word via quotation marks. The foreign tag indicates that quotation marks were used because the word is in a foreign language. The distinct tag signifies that the quote is in quotation marks because to set it apart from the rest of the text due to some linguistic peculiarity, slang, for instance, or regional dialect. Mentioned is used to indicate that the writer is talking about the word itself rather than using the word. For instance, talking about the part of speech of the word "canary." Term indicates that the word was put in quotation marks because it is a discipline or subject specific term. For example, if the author uses quotations to demarcate medical terminology, then the term type would be indicated. Finally, soCalled is used to indicate scare quotes. If the author removes him or herself from the word via quotation marks, then you mark the term as "soCalled." Below is a reference list of the different TEI elements used to mark up internal quotes:

Quick Reference, Quote Type

*spoken: A quote is spoken out loud by a character in the text. Use said,
*thought: A character thinks a quote, rather than saying it out loud. Use said.
*written: A character internal to the text has written something that is quoted within the text. Use quotation.
*emph: A word or phrase is in quotation marks in order to emphasize it. Use emph.
*distinct: A word or phrase is in quotes because it is linguistically distinct, so, for instance, it is slang or regional dialect. Use distinct.
*mentioned: A word or phrase is in quotes because the author refers to the word itself, such as in a discussion of its part of speech, rather than using the word. Use mentioned.
*term: A word or phrase is in quotes because it is terminology. For instance, computer terms or scientific language. Use term.
*foreign: A word or phrase is in quotation marks because it does not belong to the predominant language used in the text. Use foreign.
*soCalled: An author uses scare quotes to distance him or herself from a word. Use soCalled.

<p>Aggie said,
    <said>&quot;She&apos;s a Trollope.&quot;</said>
<p>Aggie thought,
    <said>&quot;How long have I been here?&quot;</said>
    <quotation>&quot;Anna said,
        <said>&apos;See you at noon,&apos;</said>
read the note.</p>

<p>Henry blustered,
    <said>&quot;I know you.
        <quote>&apos;Thou Shalt Not Kill.&apos;</quote>
<term>&quot;Wind Box,&quot;</term>
<p>Abaft this were three small cabins, with windows
  with paper, and a passage down the port side from the stern to the
  bow, on which I cannot say they
  for they were open
  (!), and a partial privacy was only obtained by making a
  partition with a curtain.
I had four days of
    <distinct>&quot;hanging on.&quot;</distinct>
<mentioned>&quot;six thousand&quot;</mentioned>


See VWWP TEI P5 Encoding Guidelines for more information about closers.

Back Matter

For how to encode the back matter of the text, see the back matter section.

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