Table 3 Discussion: Google v. Apple v. Adobe, Standards
Chris Beer, Steve DiDomenico, Hannah Frost, Kimberly Hayworth, Mark Notess, Joseph Pawletko, Judy Stern
Google YouTube support for HTML 5 and .webm
WebM format (VP8 video and Vorbis audio)
Google purchased On2 Technologies (developers of VP8) and irrevocably released all of its patents on VP8 as a royalty-free format
Concerns about submarine patents related to video technologies
Support for HTML 5 and H.264
MPEG LA licenses patent pool for H.264/AVC (Apple and Microsoft among others hold patents)
MPEG LA claims that Theora and VP8 infringe on their patents
Previously, Flash was widely adopted due to large installed user base.
Increasingly, alternatives to Flash are being implemented (HTML 5 versions) because of the lack of support for Flash on Apple devices
HTML5 still under development, will be the next major revision of HTML standard
It incorporates features like video playback and drag-and-drop that previously required third-party browser plug-ins. The multimedia elements <audio> and <video> provide new functionality through a standardized interface.
**PBcore vs Dublin Core
The PBCore metadata standard (Public Broadcasting Metadata Dictionary) was created by the public broadcasting community. The PBCore standard is built on the foundation of the Dublin Core (ISO 15836). PBCore extends Dublin Core by adding a number of elements specific to audiovisual assets. These AV assets can be physical analog media items, or digital media objects. There are challenges with how PBCore handles XML
Section 508 compliant players
- Keyboard Controls: The user can control the video player transport buttons such as play, pause and volume with a keyboard.
- Text Controls (when styles are disabled): The user can control the video player transport buttons using a screen reader.
- Variety of different formats for captions
.scc (broadcast), .dfxp (supported by Flash), .srt (supported by YouTube)
.srt becoming most used
SMIL supported by QuickTime and WMP with some limited browser support.
Descriptive audio tracks are much less common than captions
- Preservation Formats
Uncompressed YUV 10 bit 4:2:2 (WGBH uses 8 bit)
Library of Congress uses Motion JPEG 2000
How to ensure sustainability?
Media migration policy is important
Support for 4K, 3D in the future?